Using Facebook to Promote Nightly Newscasts

It’s no secret that Facebook is a major driver of traffic to local TV news websites, but there is less certainty that social media has an impact on newscast ratings.

Marketshare’s Paul Greeley explored the issue recently since it’s the November ratings period and “many stations are using Facebook to promote special reports for their TV newscasts.”

In some cases, the Facebook promo is the same as the TV promo. But in many cases, the Facebook promo is different since it needs to be effective without any audio, as it’s been reported that 85% of Facebook users watch videos with the sound turned off.

I looked for posts that had a clear “call to action” to watch in either the post or the promo.

One of the most effective, with more than 100,000 views and dozens of shares, comes from Stephen Stock at KNTV, the NBC O&O in San Francisco.  Note the call for the Facebook audience to interact with Stock via the comments function.



As Greeley notes, most Facebook users watch video with the sound off, so think about how much more effective this video might have been with text to help the audience get the gist of the story without the narration. It’s a good effort, though, and clearly engaged people on social.

Check out the rest of Paul’s examples to see what other stations are up to.


How journalists can play the social media game

If you don’t have time for social media, you don’t have time for your customers. So says Chip Mahaney, a recruiter for E.W. Scripps, who offers suggestions for journalists trying to expand their social footprints.

“Be social, not awkward. It’s not just about you.  Your camera has two lenses and journalists need to be using the front-facing camera more often,” Mahaney says.

He also recommends that you “paint your posts blue.” Use hashtags and tagging features to include others in the conversation, in order to build audience engagement. Mahaney’s session on social media at the Excellence in Journalism conference focused primarily on Facebook and Twitter.

“Facebook is a game where you are competing against other posters,” says Mahaney.  “The algorithm acts as the judge and jury.”

To win the game, Mahaney says you have to start posting through the eyes of your user. You want to think about what the audience wants at the very moment you are about to hit publish. You win if you get users do to something with your post:  like, comment or share.

“You should be creating ‘thumbstoppers’ — something that will make people stop scrolling and pay attention.”

For example, Mahaney says the first two seconds of a Facebook video have to be especially compelling or you might consider beginning with a screen of text designed to draw people in.

sommervilleYet, even in a world that seems consumed by video, Mahaney says text still matters. He points to KTVU’s Frank Somerville who writes what Mahaney calls “beautiful, simple text” in his Facebook posts and gets rewarded for it with plenty of audience engagement.

“If Facebook is a game, I call Twitter hand-to-hand combat,” says Mahaney. He maintains posting frequency is what matter most on the platform, but that consistency and a mix of photos and videos is important as well.

To improve your Twitter following, Mahaney suggests checking out your own Twitter Analytics.  Identify one thing to work on at a time and set a weekly goal.  For example, if you notice tweets about local schools engage audience, see whether you can increase your following by increasing your school-related posts.

In answering the oft asked question of how much sharing is too much, Mahaney says, “You have to decide where your line is between personable and private. You don’t have to put private out there, but do share what’s personable, as long as it is professional.”



Small markets, big dreams

VJ doc stillEvery journalism student hears the same advice: Plan to start small, and work your way up. But what does it really mean to “start small?”

Will your first job in TV news be easy? Glamorous? Lucrative? Not likely. You’ll work hard, make personal and financial sacrifices, and learn a ton of things they didn’t teach you in J-school. Along the way, your dreams may shatter. Or you may just find your way to the job you’ve always wanted.

A new documentary produced by Karin and Bill Schwanbeck, who teach journalism at Quinnipiac University, tells the unvarnished story. The film follows five young journalists as they struggle with the reality of small-market TV news. The long hours and low pay. The demands of working alone as a VJ/MMJ, generating stories, shooting, writing, editing. Along the way, the filmmakers talk to Mary Bock, now at the University of Texas, whose research on VJ’s we featured a few years back. (Full disclosure: they also interviewed me.)

Small Markets, Big Dreams runs an hour. It’s well worth watching.


Five essential skills for a newscast producer

MadiProducingIf you want a job in television news, be a producer.  At any given time, more than 20 percent of all the job ads posted by TV news outlets are for producers, but just a tiny fraction of journalism graduates have any producing experience at all.

Madi Van Zile is one of the exceptions.  She took part in a newscast producing internship through the University of Mississippi, which led almost immediately to a full-time job at WTVA in Tupelo.  With three months on the job now under her belt, Van Zile believes she’s identified five essential skills that a journalists needs to become a TV news producer.

  1. The first skill is one of the first lessons taught to everyone in their first journalism class: Know how to write a story.  While the producer may not be the one going out to cover the story, he or she ultimately makes sure that what is being read by the anchors is easily understood by the audience. That means using short and concise sentences that an anchor can read clearly without stumbling and that are designed to keep the audience engaged.
  2. The second skill I believe all producers should have is another skill that every journalism graduate should be familiar with: Video editing. Nine times out of ten, the reporters will have their videos, VO/SOTs, VOs and packages edited for the producers before they leave for the day. However, when breaking news happens, the producer may have to take over, and even on a slow day, the producer may need to edit some tease footage or another element within the show.
  3. The third skill that I believe every producer should have is knowing how to stack a show. Stacking a show is at the very core of what a producer needs to know because producers decide which stories need to be put at the top of the newscast, which need to run later in the show or which need to be pulled altogether.  For the 6 p.m. show, I focus primarily on local news and important information that people need to know for the rest of the day or for the next day. Hard news stories such as crime, localized national stories or breaking information usually make it to the top of my newscasts. On the flip side, small event stories or ‘fluff’ stories do not usually make it into the ‘A’ block (unless it is a really slow news day). There is no perfect way of telling a new producer a basic format of what stories should be at the top of each newscast every night. They have to get the feel of what they believe the viewers at home want and what feels natural for the station. It takes time and communication with each reporter, news manager and anchor in the early stages of being a producer to get the idea of what the new station wants to classify as ‘important.’
  4. Speaking of communication, every producer should have good communication skills. One of the first things I do every day when I walk into the newsroom is ask my reporters about the stories they are covering. Are they doing a live shot? Are they going to have enough information to turn it into a package? Have they communicated with their interviews? Do they need any extra equipment? If a producer just assumes that their reporters are fine and that they can just stack the show when the reporters return to the newsroom, they are surely mistaken. Communication continues throughout the day, but it’s a balancing act.  If I call every five minutes for an update on their story, my reporters would not get anything done. A producer needs to find the happy middle between not communicating with his or her reporters and not trusting them.
  5. The last skill that I believe is essential is time management.  For most stations around the county, their primetime newscasts usually run 30 minutes.  A new producer might think that it is overwhelming trying to oversee every news story for the newscast. However, if one takes into consideration all the commercial breaks, weather and sports, an average 6 p.m. newscast only has around 10 minutes of news. That makes it all a little less daunting.

There is a reason why most students studying journalism go into reporting instead of producing. Being a news producer can seem extremely stressful, and though they are often unnoticed by the audience, if anything goes wrong, they are usually the first ones blamed. However, I would not have asked for anything else than what I am doing now: sitting in the booth, waiting for 6:00:00 to hit and to hear WTVA’s intro music for the start of another night’s newscast.

Madi Van Zile is a 2016 graduate of the Meek School of Journalism & New Media at the University of Mississippi.


Take a hike to find a story

Most journalists know that to find really good stories they need to step away from the computer. Sure, there a ton of information online that could lead to a story, but nothing beats getting out of the office. And the best way to observe what’s really going on in a community is to walk it. But where to begin?

Credit: National Geographic

Paul Salopek, Out of Eden. Credit: National Geographic

Writing in Quill, the SPJ magazine, Jeff South of Virginia Commonwealth University shared a process developed by a retired editor at National Geographic. Don Belt helped plan the Out of Eden reporting project, launched in 2013, which sent Putlizer Prize winner Paul Salopek on an around-the-world journey (still underway) to tell the story of human migration.

Since then, Belt has developed a university class to teach students to find untold stories by taking a hike. Here’s how he describes the process:

Slow down, carefully observe and use the tools in their hip pockets to tell the subtle, powerful stories that ‘fast’ journalists often overlook in the rush to feed a 24/7 news cycle.

Students at VCU piloted the course, and told stories about neighborhoods in Richmond, Virginia, that challenged their perceptions and opened their eyes.

For educators wanting the full “Out of Eden” experience, Belt offers campus workshops supported by the Pulitzer Center for Crisis Reporting. If that’s not possible, why not encourage students to do what Jeff South suggests and “stroll as they troll for untold stories.”


Three of four U.S. journalists feel more engaged with audience thanks to social media

The advent of social media has, of course, fundamentally changed journalism in the U.S. and around the world.  According to research conducted by Dr. Agnes Gulyas of Canterbury Christ Church University in the U.K., 78% of the U.S. journalists she surveyed indicated social media had helped them become more engaged with the audience.  They also noted a shift in the news and information power structure as 62% responded that the public has more influence in social media than professional media organizations.

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Gulyas, who surveyed hundreds of journalists on these issues in 2013 and again in 2016, also found that the use of social media is prompting growing concern among journalists who fear “social media is undermining journalistic values” and an even larger group (73% in the U.S.) indicates speed is trumping analysis in journalism, due to the influence of social media.

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Despite the angst, more than two-fifths of U.S. journalists believe social media has had a positive impact on journalism overall and, it’s clear that social media has played a significant role in three key areas of journalistic practice: promotion of content, monitoring news and information sources and audience interaction.

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Gulyas presented her results at the World Journalism Education Congress in Auckland, New Zealand.


Salaries for TV news reporters, producers increase

When newly graduated journalists start getting those first job offers, they’re often at a loss as to how much they can expect to be paid.  The annual RTDNA Salary Survey is one of the best places to start, and this year’s graduates are getting some good news for a change.

According to researcher Bob Papper, “The latest RTDNA/Hofstra University Annual Survey found that local television news salaries rose by 4.8% in 2015. That’s more than double last year’s 1.9% increase.”

For those just starting the job hunt, it’s particularly important to look at median salaries by market size as indicated in the graphic below.  If you’re a reporter about to be hired in a very small market (151+), an offer in the $26,000 range would not be out of whack, for example.

Courtesy: RTDNA

Courtesy: RTDNA

No surprise that the salary showing the biggest increase was for digital content managers — up 25% year-to-year.   What does seem strange is that news producer salaries continue to be relatively low compared to news reporter positions.  For as much as news directors moan and groan about the lack of quality producer candidates, they might want to take a look at how much they’re paying for this key newsroom position.


Local TV news grows again, but…

There’s more local TV news on the air than ever, and more is on the way. That’s the headline from the latest RTDNA research conducted by Bob Papper. The median amount of news aired on weekdays, 5.5 hours, broke the old record by half an hour. More than a third of stations surveyed said they added a newscast last year, and a third said they planned to add news this year. But the number of stations producing that news continues to slide, which raises this question: How much of what viewers see on many of local TV stations is diluted or duplicated content?

controlroomThe report found 714 stations producing local TV news, down just slightly from last year’s 717. Another 339 stations–a record high–air news produced by someone else, up from 328 a year ago. Put another way, one-third of all stations airing local news don’t produce it themselves.

A look at long-term trends tells the story more clearly. Ten years ago, there were 778 news producing stations. That number shrank dramatically during the recession, and hasn’t recovered. But the number of stations carrying news they don’t produce has grown substantially in just the last few years. Three years ago, 235 stations fit that description. The new record of 339 is an increase of 44 percent. Let that sink in for a minute.

What does this new local TV landscape mean for viewers and journalists? My chapter on local TV news in the 2014 State of the News Media report lays it out. “You can argue that every time you add an outlet, that unless you add a commensurate number of staff people then you’re just spreading yourself thinner and thinner,” Papper said at the time (emphasis mine).

We won’t know the results of the annual RTDNA staffing survey for another month or two, but my guess is that, when the numbers come out, they won’t show anything like a proportional increase in the number of people employed in TV newsrooms. The conclusion is inevitable: producing more TV news with a higher airtime-to-staff ratio affects the quality of the product, and not in a good way.


Advice for newsroom interns

It’s that time of year. Students are frantically looking for summer internships or stressing about how they’ll manage to survive through the (unpaid) internship they already have lined up.

We’ve shared advice on how to make the most of your newsroom internship on the blog before, but there’s always room for more, right? These tips are from Laura Gassner Otting, who focuses on nonprofits, but whose suggestions are absolutely on target for journalism interns as well.


Local TV news profitable on air, online

There’s certainly no reason to rest on your proverbial laurels if you work in TV news, but neither is it time to call the undertaker. The latest RTDNA/Hofstra University Annual Survey found that 2015 marked another strong year for the TV news business.  Nearly 60% of TV newsrooms reported that they made a profit on local news and just 3.7% reported a loss. (To put this in perspective, according to the researchers, profits peaked peak in 2013 at 65.7%.)

Courtesy : RTDNA/Hofstra University Annual Survey

Courtesy : RTDNA/Hofstra University Annual Survey

The news is not all good, however.  According to the lead researcher, Bob Papper, on average, the amount of station revenue generated specifically from news slipped for the first time in the last 3 years, dropping to 47.7%.  Median revenue also fell from last year’s 54.5% back down to 50%.

“But there’s a caution in the numbers.  As I’ve pointed out before, a high percentage of news directors say they don’t know the answer to this question,” wrote Papper.

It’s also important to note that, once again, station websites are contributing to the overall profitability of stations.  Far more stations indicate their online efforts are making money than draining dollars.

Courtesy: RTDNA/Hofstra University Annual Survey

Courtesy: RTDNA/Hofstra University Annual Survey

What’s particularly heartening in the research is that at least some of the profits are going back into newsrooms.  Nearly half of the stations (48.3%) report budget increases in 2015.

All of this should be good news to the thousands of broadcast journalism graduates hoping to enter the workforce.  The industry is evolving but not dying, yet.